lunes, 7 de septiembre de 2009

WCF, Desarrollando un Servicio y Cliente ASP.Net

La semana pasada publiqué un artículo (WCF, Introducción y Conceptos Básicos), después de comprendidos los conceptos básicos, pasemos a la acción.

En dicho artículo comentábamos sobre los pasos para desarrollar un servicio, acá implementaremos cada uno de esos pasos:

  1. Definir el Contrato (ServiceContract)
  2. Implementar el Contrato (ServiceContract)
  3. Configurar el Servicio
  4. Diseñar una aplicación Hosting del servicio
  5. Diseñar una aplicación cliente del servicio

Antes de comenzar plantemos el ejemplo que queremos implementar:

Imaginemos que deseamos crear un servicio y un cliente web que lo consuma, y que dicho servicio nos de la posibilidad de:

  • Obtener todos los países de una tabla de datos.
  • Insertar un nuevo país.
  • Refrescar la lista de países.

WCF, Definir el Contrato

En este punto es donde definiremos la interfaz, agregando los distintos métodos que serán incluidos en el contrato.

Pero antes deberemos crear una solución y dentro agregaremos un proyecto que será nuestro servicio WCF.


Como vemos en la figura, el proyecto que agregaremos será una Biblioteca de Servicios WCF y la nombraremos WCFUtiles.

Lo próximo que haremos será agregar un Servicio WCF al proyecto:


En nuestro caso de ejemplo le llamaremos al servicio de WCFCodigosWS.svc”. Al aceptar se nos crearan automáticamente 3 archivos:

WCFCrearServicioCodigosWS Interfaz

En el archivo señalado es donde definiremos el contrato del servicio,  que no es otra cosa que definir la interfaz que deseamos:

WCFCrearServicioCodigosWS Interfaz 1

Nótese como en la interfaz ICodigosWS hemos definido 3 métodos:

  • ObtenerPaises
  • AdicionarPais
  • RefrescarPaises

Estos métodos serán los que posteriormente implementaremos en la clase final del servicio.

Como algunos de estos métodos devuelve un tipo de datos List<CodigoWS>, necesitaremos definir el atributo ServiceKnownType. Dentro del esquema que viaja con el mensaje las colecciones viajan como array pero es preciso decirle de que tipo es ese array, para que el cliente pueda posteriormente deserializarlo; es por ello que definimos este atributo.

WCF, Definir o Implementar el Contrato

Para ello abriremos el segundo archivo CodigosWS.cs, donde definiremos el contrato, que no es otra cosa que definir una clase que implemente la interfaz creada anteriormente ICodigosWS.

WCFCrearServicioCodigosWS Definicion

Como veras en la figura, se define una clase CodigosWS, que implementa la interfaz ICodigosWS. Y se implementan los 3 métodos definidos en la interfaz. Veamos la definición de uno de los métodos:

WCFCrearServicioCodigosWS Definicion Obtener Paises

WCF, Configurar el Servicio

La configuración del servicio la hacemos en un fichero de configuración Web.Config.

WCFCrearServicioCodigosWS Configuracion

En esta imagen vemos una configuración muy básica, mas adelante en otro articulo profundizaré un poco más sobre las posibles configuraciones.

En el Web.Config, configuraremos 2 cosas:

El Servicio (<services>):

  • El nombre del servicio que coincidirá con el nombre de la clase.
  • El behaviorConfiguration que es definido más abajo en el mismo fichero.

Dentro del servicio debemos identificar un endpoint del mismo:

  • Definiremos el contrato del endpoint.
  • El tipo de binding.

El Comportamiento (<behaviors>):

  • Exponer el metadata para que los clientes puedan ver y consumir el servicio.

Llegados a este punto, podemos compilar el servicio y comprobar si todo ha ido bien, para ello abriremos el fichero CodigosWS.svc en el explorador, y debemos obtener una imagen como esta:

WCFCrearServicioCodigosWS Comprobar

Esto nos indica que nuestro servicio ya esta creado y expuesto hacia el mundo con el metadata señalado.

WCF, Hosting del servicio

En este punto nada debemos hacer, porque en nuestro ejemplo hemos hosteado el servicio en el IIS (localhost).

WCF, Diseñar una aplicación cliente del servicio

Llegados aquí ya estamos listos para crear el cliente o consumidor del servicio.

Agregaremos a la solución un nuevo Sitio Web de Tipo ASP.NET, al que nombraremos ClienteWeb.

Lo primero que haremos en el proyecto será hacer referencia a nuestro servicio (Agregar Referencia de Servicio).

WCFCrearClienteCodigosWS Agregar Referencia Servicio

Después crearemos una página que contendrá un grid con el resultado de nuestro servicio y un botón que será el encargado de ir al servicio y obtener la lista de países:

WCFCrearClienteCodigosWS Pagina Aspx

WCFCrearClienteCodigosWS Pagina cs

Después de creada e implementada la página pasaremos a compilar el proyecto para ver si todo esta bien. Posteriormente pondremos el proyecto y la página como elementos de inicio, y ejecutaremos para ver el resultado, lo cual debería ser algo como esto:

WCFCrearClienteCodigosWS Pagina

Y hasta aquí este ejemplo práctico de como construir y consumir un servicio WCF en ASP.Net. Espero les halla servido como base. Más adelante escribiré otro artículo sobre los distintos comportamientos que podemos definirle a un servicio WCF.

hasta la próxima…

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